Campiglia Marittima was land of the Etruscans who exploited, first, its mineral wealth. In the Middle Ages it became a fief of the family Gherardesca and later passed under the dominion of Pisa. In 1406 it was annexed to the Florentine state that gave her the role of political and military outpost for the Maremma. Isidoro Falchi, his first poet, writes in his Trattenimenti “what was the Maremma all, it was the community of Campiglia.”
Still, Hawks says Campiglia “was already on the Mille.” This is confirmed by the first written document dates back to 1004, when Gherardo II Gherardesca gives the monastery of Santa Maria Serena, near Chiusdino, half of the Castle Campiglia with its territory, the church and part of the castles of Biserno, Acquaviva and Montecalvo.
Under Pisa and Florence was Capitania and enjoyed a certain autonomy. Its decline coincided with the general crisis that hit many parts of Italy, but was able to recover thanks to the industriousness of its people and natural resources of the territory.
Campiglia Marittima is situated 210 meters above sea level and is surrounded by high and thick walls whose remains are still visible. They fed the myth of their impregnability so that “beneath them was so steep that the soil was almost impossible to get there.”
Campiglia Marittima spans two hills: the Rock and Poggiame. At the center of the square.
The wall is punctuated by five towers and four gates: the gate of St. Anthony, or Fiorentina, the Porta al Pozzolungo or Pisana Gate East, or Porticciola (collapsed after the war), the door noon, or Porta a Mare.
From these ports depart the most important streets of the internal road system.
For the past few years it has opened the door to even Ribellino, close to the port in the South.
The open squares in the grid of the steep city streets are the result of demolitions carried out between the eighteenth and twentieth century to give Campigliesi “… some place more open and more spacious equipped with public source …”, as Emanuele Repetti, in 1833.
The nineteenth century is the period of its greatest splendor. In fact, it occupied the first place among the cities to the cultural, social and economic.
It was the seat of the significant political power – administrative and, at length, the most populous.
The Maremma was here, the border area between the unhealthy and cleaning up that made its fertile plains and open to the arrival of a new population.
Until 1949, also belonged San Vincenzo, today became known tourist destination.
The territory of Campiglia Marittima covers 83.13 square kilometers. Its main economic resources are related to agriculture, the service sector and the thermal activity.
Close to the center – town is Venturina which is the modern representation of the ancient Campiglia Marittima. The name has different interpretations. The most common one is derived from Campus pilae, that area full of water. Sea, however, comes from his membership in the Maremma. Access to Campiglia Marittima is easy and sliding along the coast.
It appears in its entirety as a single structural fact nice to visit in the narrow streets that wind between walls that exude the smell of history, in crevices, stairways, alleys and arcades, broken from time to time, the green of the surrounding hills, by the blue sky and the sea with all the islands of the Tuscan archipelago, and, in the distance, Corsica.
The fortress, then you can admire a panorama of rooftops degrading particular effect.
“The roofs of Campiglia fly away, they are umbrellas in the wind, the whole city is going to rise in the air”
A place to visit to make sure a pride that stands against the distractions of the modern era, the stubborn will to remain clinging to their homes, to the slopes, the walls that smell of centuries and remain to prove greatness and decadence , passion and erudition, testimony and a reminder of what was and should remain so for as long as possible.